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Welcome to Dr. Hamid Sanatinia's Virtual Headquarters
Molecular Genetics

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Should we treat or not???
Performace Status
Antiemetics
Growth Factors
Calculations
Chemo Precautions
TOXICITY CRITERIA
Antidepressants
Chemoprotection
MESNA
Dexrazoxane
Radioprotectants
Hypercalcemia of malignancy
Mucositis
Neutropenic Fever
Palliative Care
Radiation Oncology
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ALL
AML
Anal
Bladder Cancer
Brain Cancer
Breast (risk category)
Breast (adjuvant)
Breast (metastatic)
Breast (Xeloda)
Breast (hormonal)
Breast Cancer Genetics
Carcinoid
CLL
CML
COLON CANCER
Endometrial
Esophagous
Gastric
Gestational Trophoblastic Disease
Germ Cell (Ovary)
Hairy Cell Leukemia
Head/Neck
Head/Neck: ChemoRT abstracts
Head/Neck: Larynx
Head/Neck:Nasopharyngeal
Hodgkins
Islet Cell Tumors
Kidney
Liver
LUNG, NSC
Stage III Unresectable NSC Lung Cancer
Lung, SC
Lymphoma, Aggressive
Lymphoma, AIDS
Lymphoma, Burkitts
Lymphoma, CNS
Lymphoma, Cutaneous
Lymphoma, Indolent
Lymphoma, MALT
Lymphoma, Mantle cell
Lymphoma, Mediastinal B-Cell
Lymphoma, Refractory NHL
Melanoma
Mesothelioma
Multiple Myeloma
MDS
NHL
Ovarian
Pancreas
Prostate
Prostate (Hormonal)
Rectal Cancer
Sarcoma
Sarcoma, Ewing's
Sarcoma, Osteogenic
Skeletal Metastasis
Testicular Cancer
Thymoma
Thyroid Cancer
Waldenstrom's
Unknown Primary
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Molecular Genetics
Oncogenes, the list!
Immunoperoxidase stains
Tumor Markers
Bleomycin
Cisplatin
Etoposide
Ifosfamide
Methotrexate
Temazolamide
Mechanism of Action
Dose Modifications (Renal)
Dose Modifications (hepatic)
MDR

ACUTE MYELOGENOUS LEUKEMIA
t(9;22)
Philadelphia chromosome
t(8;21)
most often seen in M2 AML
t(9;11)
most often seen in AML arising from MDS
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ATAXIA-TEANGIECTASIA
AT gene
immunodeficiency, telangiectasias, progressive neurological degeneration, breast (heterozygotes have 3.9X RR)

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BLADDER
C-ras mutation
50% Rb inactivation
60% P53 mutation
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BREAST
brca-1 (17q21) breast, ovary, colon, ?prostate
brca-2 (13q12-q13) breast, male breast
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CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA
13q (55% of cases) [DBM tumor suppressor gene]
deletion in 11q (18%)
trisomy of 12q (16%)
deletion in 17p (7%)
deletion in 6q (6%)
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COLON
APC gene inactivation
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GI STROMAL TUMOR (GIST)
c-kit: GIST expresses the c-kit oncogene (CD117), a tyrosine kinase.

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HEAD & NECK CANCERS

EGF receptor over expression is seeen in up to 90% of cases.
P53 mutation is seen in 50-70% of cases
HPV-16 genome is detected in a fraction of those that do not have a P53 mutation. Most of the HPV positive cases are HPV-16. Oropharynx cancer is the most frequently encountered head & neck cancer that is positive for HPV.
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MELANOMA
P16(INK4)
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MYELDYSPLASTIC SYNDROME
chromosome 5: -5, 5q-
chromosome 7: -7, 7q-
trisomy 8
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NON-HODGKINS LYMPHOMA
t(14;18): results in deregulation & increased expression of bcl-2 gene on chromosome 18
Seen in FOLLICULAR NHL
Seen also in DIFFUSE LARGE B CELL LYMPHOMA (30% of cases)

t(11;14): the bcl-1 locus containing the PRAD-1 or cyclin D1 gene on chromosome 11 is placed in proximity to the immune globulin heavy chain gene on chromosome 14.
Seen in MANTLE CELL LYMPHOMA

t(8;14): seen in BURKITTS LYMPHOMA. c-myc is translocated from chromosome 8 to the proximity of the immune globulin gene promoters on chromosome 14, 2, or 22. This results in c-myc degregulation & activation.

t(3;14): bcl-6 gene on chromosome 3 is involved in this translocation. Note that this gene could translocate into any of the light or heavy chains!
Seen in DIFFUSE LARGE B-CELL LYMPHOMA b(30-35% of SIg+ cases)


t(2;5): Seen in T-CELL ANAPLASTIC LARGE CELL NHL. Involves ALK gene translocation.

t(9;14): Seen in LYMPHOPLASMACYTIC LYMPHOMA. Involves PAX-5 translocation
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OSTEOSARCOMA
Rb gene inactivation
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RENAL CELL CARCINOMA
3p14 deletion...........VHL gene
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RETINOBLASTOMA
Rb gene inactivation
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SARCOMA
SYNOVIAL t(X;18)
ALVEOLAR RHABDOMYOSARCOMA t(2;13)

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TESTICULAR
i(12p).........found on all histologic types of germ cell tumors.This marker has been helpful in determining the germ cell origin of teratomas in malignant transformations & in mediastinal tumors.
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LI-FRAUMERNI SYNDROME
germline P53 mutation
carriers have 50% chance of cancer diagnosis by age 30 & 95% chance by age 65. Cancers include: Breast, childhood sarcoma, etc.
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Location of Immunoglobulin genes:
Imm H chain gene on chromosome 14
Imm K light chain gene on chromosome 2